Prostate cancer: does radiation therapy raise the risk for second cancers?

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  • Radiation therapy (RT) was not associated with overall increased risk for second cancer (SC).
  • SC risk was increased with RT-only, but not with RT after radical prostatectomy (RP+RT).

Why this matters

  • Previous reports have provided conflicting results.

Key results

  • 10-y SC incidence was 15.9%, 13.2%, and 10.5% for RT-only, RP+RT, and RP-only (P<.0001). 
  • Incidence of colon cancer was 1.7%, 2.0%, and 1.1%, respectively. 
  • Rectal cancer occurred in 1.1%, 0.3%, and 0.6%. 
  • Bladder cancer occurred in 2.7%, 1.5%, and 1.1%. 
  • Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) occurred in 2.1%, 1.6%, and 1.2%. 
  • Incidence of lung cancer was 2.2% with RT-only and 1.2% with RP regardless of postoperative RT.
  • Age, T- and N-category and treatment were predictors for SC development. 
  • RP+RT and RT-only patients were at higher risk ...