Prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy at higher risk for secondary cancers

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Takeaway
  • Radiotherapy for prostate cancer was associated with higher risks of developing secondary malignancies of the bladder, colon, and rectum compared with patients unexposed to radiotherapy, but the reported absolute rates were low. 


Key results

  • There was increased risk of cancers of the bladder (aHR=1.67; 95% CI 1.55-1.80), colorectum (aHR=1.79; 95% CI 1.34-2.38), and rectum (aHR=1.79; 95% CI 1.34-2.38), after radiotherapy compared with the risk in those unexposed to radiotherapy. 
  • External beam radiotherapy was consistently associated with increased odds of secondary cancer while brachytherapy was not. 
  • Among patients who underwent radiotherapy, from individual studies, the highest absolute rates reported for bladder, colorectal, and rectal cancers were 3.8%, 4.2%, and 1.2%, respectively, while the lowest reported rates were 0.1%, 0.3%,...